Of the Philippines 7,107 islands, Negros (Oriental and Occidental) is the forth-largest island. The mountains embrace the coastline throughout the province, and Mount Talinis and Mount Kanlaon, a live volcano, are the two highest peaks.
Negros Oriental's topography is characterized by low, but serrated mountain ranges, in which most parts are close to the shoreline. The highest mountain is Canlaon volcano at a peak of 2,465 meters. It is an active volcano that marks the northern boundary of Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental.
The larger portion of Mount Canlaon is under the jurisdiction of Negros Occidental. Next highest is Cuernos De Negros (Horns of Negros) in Valencia overlooking Dumaguete City with a height of 2,000 meters. At the foot of Cuernos (locally called Mt. Talinis) is the geothermal plant that supplies electric power in the whole islands of Negros and Panay and the Province of Cebu.
Another mountain peak rising 1,904 meters high in the central part of Negros is Mt. Tepasi.Located in the southwestern part of Negros is the Tablas Plateau, primarily rolling hills covered with virgin tropical forest.
The Provincial Government of Negros Oriental was established on May 1, 1901. On August 28 of the same year Dr. David S. Hibbard established Silliman Institute, which would grow to become the oldest Protestant University of Asia. St. Paul's Academy was founded on October 29, 1904, the first St. Paul Chartes institution in the Philippines.
Silliman and St. Paul, along with Foundation University and Negros Oriental State University, endow the provincial capital with four major institutions of higher learning.
The Provincial Capital was inaugurated on February 25, 1925. The capital, Dumaguete, became a city on June 15, 1948, by virtue of Republic Act no 327. On April 5, 1955, Pope Pius XII creted the Diocese of Dumaguete comprising Negros Oriental Province, Siquijor sub-province, and the Negros Occidental towns of San Carlos, Calatrava, Toboso and Escalante.
On September 17, 1971, Siquijor was separated as an independent Province.
Negros Oriental is mostly about nature and people. Occupying a modest southeast fraction of Negros Island, its 5,402.30 square kilometers nonetheless constitute the largest land area of the Central Visayas provinces and provides 60% of Region VII's total forest cover.Its coastline is a tropical fringe, in most places just a short walk up into green mountains.
Dumaguete, the Provincial Capital of Negros Oriental , is known as the City of Gentle People because of the kind and hospitable inhabitants. In a country known for hospitality, this city stands out above the rest. The word Dumaguete is derived from the term dumaguit in the local dialect, meaning "to kidnap." At one time, this term referred to the numerous pirates and buccaneers that attacked the city.
The name has evolved, and now accounts for the powerful allure the city has on its visitors, and once you come to visit you may not want to leave. Negros Oriental has beautiful beaches, crested mountains, exciting urban life and more, and it's a place that will invite you with open arms and enticing possibilities.
Majority of the people in Negros Oriental are fluent in English. The local dialect spoken here is Cebuano/Bisaya, and the national language Filipino/Tagalog is also widely understood.
As a whole, the Roman Catholic religion still claims the biggest number of followers of 893,726 representing 79.160% of the total population. Tables 8.1a and 8.1b are summary presentations of Household Population by Religious Affiliation and City/Municipality of the province in the year 2000. The data was taken from the National Statistics Office (NSO).
Out of the five (5) cities, Tanjay with 96.698% has the highest percentage of Roman Catholic believers followed by Dumaguete City with 89.230%. However, Bais City has the least Roman Catholic believers with only 73.252%.
From among the 20 municipalities, Dauin with 97.090% got the highest percentage of Roman Catholic believers.This was followed by Vallehermoso with 96.387%. Tayasan got the lowest Catholic believers with only 39.832%.
The Philippine Independent Church or Aglipayan with 5.633% has followers more than that of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines with 4.473%.
The whole eastern part of the province falls under the third type of climate which is characterized by not very pronounced maximum rainfall with a short dry season from one to two months. The other half falls under the the first type, characterized by a distinct wet and dry season. A dry month is one wherein rainfall is less than two inches.
Average monthly rainfall distribution in 2002 ranged from 12.6 millimeters to 169.7 millimeters with a minimum of six rainy days and a maximum of 17 rainy days. April had the lowest for the year with 12.6 mm and October had the most with 169.7 mm. During the same period in 1995, rainfall was recorded at 0.6 mm. However, in the month of October rainfall was recorded at 169.7 mm, the highest in the year.
The temperature for the entire province in 2002 was recorded to range from between 22.8ºC and 23.7ºC. Maximum temperatures reached 34.5ºC in the month of July. Minimum temperature was recorded at 20ºC in the month of April.
Negros Oriental is strategically located near the heart of the Philippines, and to the west of Leyte,Cebu,Bohol and Siquijor Islands, it is greatly protected from the many great typhoons that batter the Eastern side of the Philippines.
From June to September, the prevailing wind is southwest monsoon (“Habagat”). From November to February, the prevailing wind is the northeast monsoon (“Amihan”). The season for variable winds is from March to May.
Relative humidity in the province range between 78% and 84%. Annual average humidity in the province is approximately 82%.